What are the components of a diesel truck engine?

Image of diesel engine


A diesel truck engine is a highly complicated piece of machinery. It consists of many different parts that all need to work together in order for it to run properly. Below we’ll cover the 9 major components that make up a diesel truck engine.

The Basics

A diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to ignite fuel in a combustion chamber. This powers pistons to move the crankshaft. The first diesel engines were developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1893 and used compressed air to run the engine. The main components of a diesel truck engine are similar to those found in any other kind of vehicle. It has pistons, rods, valves, and an oil filter. These parts do their job by working together to convert heat energy from fuel into mechanical work that turns the wheels of your truck.

Air Intake System

The air intake system pulls in air. The engine’s computer regulates the amount of fuel it burns based on how much oxygen there is in the air supply. The computer also controls when to inject fuel into each cylinder.

The air passes through a filter and cooler, which removes dust and debris from the outside of your engine, while cooling down the air before it enters your cylinders. As you accelerate, more air needs to get pumped into your engine so that it can burn more fuel and produce enough power to get you going faster. This is where turbochargers come in handy; they draw extra power from exhaust gases (and thus speed up your vehicle) by compressing ambient atmospheric pressure around them before returning this energy back into your combustion chamber at higher pressures than normal gasoline engines do without them being present!

Cooling System

A diesel engine’s cooling system is responsible for keeping the engine from overheating. It does this by circulating coolant through the engine and radiator, which helps transfer heat away from the engine. The coolant should be changed regularly because it becomes contaminated by dirt and other debris over time.

Piston and Rod Assembly

The piston and rod assembly is the most important component in a diesel engine. The pistons are the metal cylinders that move up and down in the engine during the combustion cycle. Whereas the rods are the connectors that transmit the compressive and tensile forces of the piston.

Crankshaft and Flywheel

The crankshaft is the main shaft of the engine, and it’s attached to bearings that allow it to spin freely. The flywheel sits on top of this shaft and stores kinetic energy from turning. When you press down on your gas pedal, for example, this stored energy is released at just the right time to keep your truck running smoothly.

Cylinder Head

The cylinder head is where all the valves for a piston are located, it’s attached to the top of each cylinder block and contains a camshaft and rocker arms. The camshaft turns in relation to crankshaft motion and opens and closes valves during different stages of compression or combustion.

Valves and Valvetrain

Valves are the small openings in the cylinder wall that allow air and fuel to enter when you press down on the accelerator, and exhaust gases to escape when you let off of it. The position of these valves is controlled by a valvetrain, which consists of a camshaft, rocker arms, and pushrods. The function of the valvetrain is to open and close the intake/exhaust valves at just the right time during each engine cycle so that fuel can be injected into your cylinders without having any excess energy from combustion leak out into your exhaust system before it’s ready for use again.

Turbocharger System

The turbocharger system is made up of two parts: the turbine and compressor. The turbine spins using exhaust fumes, which in turn spins the compressor. This process creates more pressure for air to enter into the cylinders, increasing engine power.

Cylinder Block

The cylinder block is the main structural component of your engine, and it houses all of its moving components. Made out of cast iron or aluminum and houses pistons, it connects rods and bearings. The cylinder head bolts to the top of the cylinder block.

Fuel System

The fuel system is responsible for providing the engine with fuel. The fuel system consists of a fuel tank, a fuel pump, a filter and lines that carry the fuel to the engine. It also consists of injectors that inject it into the combustion chamber. Injectors are controlled by an electronic module called an Engine Control Unit (ECU).


If you’re looking to get into diesel truck engines, it’s important that you understand the different components that make up an engine. If you know what each part does and how it affects your vehicle’s performance, then you’ll be able to maintain and repair it as necessary without any issues.